Spheres Business Intelligence Platform

Spheres connects locations of the world with research, industry and product categories,
entities, people, activities, processes, time, money, intangibles and dates – creating a complete world model of business.


Spheres massive world model of business provides true Business Intelligence - revealing connections and relationships with extensive contextual information. Deep connections between all objects expose hidden knowledge that can transform your business.


Lack of knowledge of all the components of your business world leads to significant inefficiencies. Leads that are not qualified are pursued, market decisions are flawed, and opportunities are lost. Spheres helps you reduce inefficiencies to dramatically increase your businesses profit margins.


You know your current customers - but do you know all of your potential customers? You know the products you can currently bring to market - but do you know all of the potential markets for your products? Spheres provides the tools to identify low-lying fruit as well as long term plays.


With the power of real Business Intelligence your company can become more efficient, capture opportunities, and grow. Spheres compliments and enhances your existing enterprise applications, leveraging your existing infrastructures and processes.

Customer Relationship Management

Spheres dramatically enhances your existing CRM tool - providing more in-depth data and context to your existing contacts and customers. More importantly – Spheres shows your CRM tool who it doesn’t know - and should.

Resource & Project Management

Showing you all of the connections between all of the moving parts of your business is in the DNA of Spheres. Being able to see what is being used, by who, how, when, where, and with is critical to managing and optimizing resources.

Contextual Search & Exploration

Spheres 3D business visualization tools leverage the hierarchical data structures of the world model to provide contextual search and exploration.

Enhanced Collaboration

Spheres 3D business visualization tools utilize Unity to provide the equivalent of massive multiplayer gaming - but for business. By exploring Spheres in a shared visual environment - teams can quickly come to consensus and act.

Business Development

Where is the low-lying fruit?
There are many forms of business development, from short-term (“low-lying fruit”) to long-term. Spheres identifies short term and low cost business development by recognizing opportunities that are easily within reach. The Entity ~ Research • Industry • Product category connections show you who is potentially using your product - so if they aren't a current customer, they should be.


I'm in Suffolk County - where are my existing customers and where are my potential customers?
Spheres GeoSpatial tools provide location specific, contextually relevant data wherever you are. Knowing all of the salient data about existing & potential customers provides a competitive advantage.


Who needs to use my product?
Since all entities are connected to one or more Research-Industry-Product categories, spheres reveals all of your potential customers.

What information is relevant to my potential customer base?
Knowing what activities your potential customer is engaged in, and all of the connected objects related to those activities provides actionable knowledge.

How do we accurately determine territories?
Since all entities are connected to Location objects - mapping customers to territories is automatic.

Research & Development

Who is working in my field, what are they doing, and how can it influence my work?
As shown in the "Activity ~ Intangibles Graph" below, the connections between researchers, their activities, and their publications provides a complete view of who is doing what in their field.

What activities within the company can my work advance?
Similar to above, yet focused on the internal activities of an entity, rather then external entities.

Human Resources

Who am I about to hire?
Utilizing all of the connections related to a Person, you can see where they worked, doing what, when, and where.

Who should I hire?
Knowing who is active in your job search requirements - where they currently are, and who they have worked for provides instant access to qualified candidates.

What do I know about this employee?
The extensive data-set for a Person, as well as all of their connections can show you a complete picture of any employee. Knowing all of their activities, relationships, and history provides valuable insight into their world.


How do I optimize my resources?
Activity and Process objects are connected to Research-Industry-Product categories and their entities, as well as other Entity and Person objects - so you can easily see where there are over-lapping uses, duplicate sources and inefficiencies.

Who is using Product X that needs to be upgraded to Product Y?
Extending the above example, since a employee is connected to activities and processes, they are automatically connected to all of the resources they use. Because they are also connected to a location, you can map the upgrades geographically.

Prime Models

A core construct of Spheres is a prime set of models that represent discrete elements of the world business model. There are fourteen prime models:

  • World
  • Country
  • Location
  • Research
  • Industry
  • Product
  • Entity
  • Person
  • Activity
  • Process
  • Time
  • Money
  • Intangibles
  • Date

Hierarchical Objects

Many of the models are based on huge data structures that are intrinsically hierarchical.

The Country model has ten top level objects:

  • Territories Inhabited
  • Territories Uninhabited
  • Territories Other
  • Government
  • Military
  • Bodies of Water
  • Air Space
  • Federal Districts
  • Regions
  • States

The States object has five 2nd level objects. Most countries are broken down into four levels of administrative divisions. Spheres labels them "State", "County", "City", "Place". A state object may be a "Province" (Canada), a county object may be "Independent City" (Virginia), a city may be a "Municipios" (Bolivia) and a place object may be "Sheyakha" (Egypt).

  • State Regions
  • Counties
  • Cities
  • Places
  • Postals

Connected Objects

Since all of the objects in all of the models are connected, relationships between distant objects are revealed - providing a wealth of contextual knowledge.

Geo-Spatial Objects

The Country and Location models contain geo-spatial data - allowing any other connected models and objects to be mapped. This also allows for AR applications providing geo-relevant data. Based on the following set of connected objects - a Time object can be mapped:

Postal Location Entity Person Activity Process Time

Temporal Objects

The Time and Date Models work together to provide temporal resolution from Millennia to Milliseconds. Any model/object that is connected to a Date object is automatically placed along a time line.

Massive Data

While the interconnected framework of Spheres is massive in of itself, the data-sets for some of the models are massive themselves:

The Entity model is broken down into 6 main categories, 45 sub-categories, with over 900 individual data points.

The Person model is broken down into 9 main categories, 97 sub-categories, with over 1200 individual data points.

Example Graphs

World ~ Date

An example graph of each model is presented below. A graph represents the models as nodes - the round circles. It also shows the relationships between the nodes - the lines connecting the nodes - including the direction and type of the relationship. The graphs presented below show a fraction of the complete data-space of Spheres.

Graph Keys

World ~ Date

Each example provides at graph key. The top row shows nodes and their colors. The bottom row shows the relationship types.

Graph Guides

Each example provides at step-by-step guide for navigating the graph. Expand the “Graph Guide” text and then roll over the graph image and follow along.


All examples provide a list of the relationships between models. The arrows between objects represent the direction of the relationship.

Model Object Hierarchy

The World, Country, Location, Research, Industry, Product and Date models are made up of objects with multiple levels of categories - hierarchies. Preserving the data hierarchy in the models drives the Spheres 3D Visualization tools.

Model Data Structure

The Entity and Person Models have extensive data structures. The breakdown of the data structures is provided as well as the total data-set count.

World ~ Location Graph: Roll over the image to explore. Click "Graph Guide" below for step by step details.

Geographic Models
Geographic Key

1 Starting with "North America" - we see that it is a category of "The Americas", and it is linked to three countries.

2 Each of the Countries is broken down in 10 Country categories.

3 The United States "US States" category has been expanded to show all the states.

4 The states are linked to country Regions. The US has 13 country regions - each hierarchical object models.

5 "New York" has been expanded to show all of its Counties.

6 "Suffolk County, New York" has been expanded to show all its Cities.

7 "Cold Spring Harbor" is linked to 1 Postal.

8 "US Postal 11724" is linked one Location.

9 "One Bungtown Road" is linked to Entity "Cold Spring Harbor"(not shown).


Geographic Models

World Continents & Regions

World continents and regions are connected to their respective countries and territories.


  • ContinentCountry
  • ContinentTerritory
  • RegionCountry
  • RegionTerritory

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • 7 Continents
  • 28 Sub-Continents
  • 8 Regions
  • 270 Countries/Territories/Other

Countries & Territories

The 270 'countries' include 38 territories, as well as atolls, reefs, and land-masses. Each contains a hieracrchy of connected objects.


  • Country • TerritoryGovernment
  • Country • TerritoryMilitary
  • Country • TerritoryFederal Districts
  • Country • TerritoryCountry Regions
  • Country • TerritoryStates
  • Country • TerritoryBodies of Water
  • Country • TerritoryAir Space

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • Government ~ Branches
  • Military ~ Branches
  • Federal Districts ~ Counties • Cities • Places • Postals
  • Country Regions ~ States • Counties • Cities
  • States ~ State Regions • Counties • Cities • Places • Postals
  • Bodies of Water ~ Lakes, Rivers...
  • Air Space~ Commercial, Aviation, Private


Locations include property addresses, buildings, units, historic places, and all other physical locations not identified by an address.


  • LocationPostal ~ State
  • LocationEntity
  • LocationPerson

Street Address Object Hierarchy:

  • Street Address
  • Building
  • Room • Suite • Apartment

Non-Street Address Objects:

  • Historic Places
  • Non-address Locations

Research • Industry • Product Graph: Roll over the image to explore. Click "Graph Guide" below for step by step details.

Business Models
Business Key

1 Starting with the Entity "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" we see the researchers(Person) engaged in the Activity "CSHL - Cancer"

2 Activity "CSHL - Cancer" is linked to Research category "Cancer and Related Disorders".

3 "Cancer and Related Disorders" is a category of "Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)"

4 "Cancer and Related Disorders" is linked to Industry category "Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences"(category level 4), which is linked to all of its Product categories.

5 "Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences"(4) is a category of "Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences"(category level 3). All of its Product categories are shown.

6 "Research and Development in Biotechnology" is one category of "Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences"(3)

7 Process "CSHL Cancer P1" is linked to Product category "Applied research in medical and health sciences", as well as three Time objects and two Intangibles objects.


Research • Industry • Product Models

Research Classifications

The Research (Research, Development and Expanding Knowledge) hierarchical data set has 5 main categories which contain up to 4 levels of subcategories – totalling 2,368 individual items. It is based on the Australia/New Zealand Fields of Research(ANZFOR) and Socio-Economic Objectives(ANZSEO) codes.


  • ResearchIndustry
  • ResearchProduct
  • ResearchActivity

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • 5 main categories
  • 61 level 1 categories
  • 406 level 2 categories
  • 1896 level 3 items

Industry Classifications

The Industry hierarchical data set has 5 main categories which contain up to 4 levels of subcategories – totalling 2,209 individual items. It is based on the North American Industry Classification System(NAICS) and includes legacy SIC codes linked to their respective NAICS codes.


  • IndustryProduct
  • IndustryResearch
  • IndustryActivity
  • IndustryProcess

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • 20 main categories
  • 99 level 1 categories
  • 312 level 2 categories
  • 713 level 3 categories
  • 1065 level 4 items

Product Classifications

The Product hierarchical data set has 5 main categories which contain up to 4 levels of subcategories – totalling 5,882 individual items. It is based on the North American Product Classification System(NAPCS).


  • ProductIndustry
  • ProductResearch
  • ProductActivity
  • ProductProcess

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • 101 main categories
  • 467 level 1 categories
  • 1576 level 2 categories
  • 1794 level 3 categories
  • 1374 level 4 categories


  • 372 level 5 categories/items
  • 144 level 6 categories/items
  • 50 level 7 categories/items
  • 4 level 8 items

Entity • Person Graph: Roll over the image to explore. Click "Graph Guide" below for step by step details.

Actor Models
Entity • Person Key

1 Entity "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" (CSHL) is linked to Location object "One Bungtown Road" - which is shown in "World~Location Graph - Step 9" above. All the researchers(Person) engaged with CSHL are linked to the 5 main CSHL Activity objects.

2 "Alexi A. Koulakov" is linked to both Activity objects "CSHL Quantitative Biology" and "CSHL Neuroscience"

3 Activity "CSHL Quantitative Biology" is linked to Research category "Structural Biology (including Macromolecular Modeling)"

4 "Zachary Lipman" is engaged in "CSHL Genomics" and "CSHL Plant Biology", and is linked to 5 Journal articles - two of which he co-authored with fellow researchers at CSHL.

5 The "Variation in the flowering gene SELF PRUNING 5G promotes day-neutrality and early yield in tomato" article is co-authored with researchers at different entities.

6 The article is linked to "Edition 1, Volume 49 of Nature: Genetics" - which is linked to Date "January, 2017"

7 "Lingbo Zhang" in "CSHL Cancer" is a co-author of "Variation in the flowering gene...".

8 "CSHL Cancer" is linked to Research category "Cancer and Related Disorders", whicjh is linked to Industry category "Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences"


Entity • Person Models


The Entity model contains over 900 data points in 45 categories. An entities core business activities are connected to one or more Business Models. The people engaged with an entity are connected to its core business activities.


  • EntityLocation
  • EntityPerson
  • EntityActivity

Model Data Structure:

  • 6 main categories
  • 45 sub-categories
  • 900+ data points


The Person model contains over 1200 data points in 97 categories.


  • PersonLocation
  • PersonEntity
  • PersonActivity
  • PersonProcess

Model Data Structure:

  • 9 main categories
  • 97 sub-categories
  • 1200+ data points

Activity ~ Intangibles Graph Roll over the image to explore. Click "Graph Guide" below for step by step details.

Activities Models
Activity ~ intangibles Key

1 "Scott Powers" is engaged in Activity "CSHL Cancer". He is linked to two Process objects - "CSHL Cancer Process 1" and "CSHL Cancer Process 2".

2 "CSHL Cancer Process 1" linked to two Intangible objects and a Product category "Applied research in medical and health sciences" used in the process.

3 "CSHL Cancer Process 1" is also linked to two Time objects - each linked to Date objects.

4 Time object "CSHL Cancer Process 1-Time 1" is linked to two Money objects, as well as an Intangible object.

5 Process "CSHL Cancer Process 2" is linked to Time and Intangibles objects. It is also linked to a Product object - which is linked to its other categories and the Industry objects that go into making of that product.


Activity Models


The Activity model captures what entities and their employees are engaged in. For instance, Cold Spring Harbor is engaged in 5 main areas of research: Cancer, Genomics... Each of these activites are connected to corresponding research categories. Researchers within each activity are engaged in additional activites, which are then broken down into their respective processes.


  • ActivityEntity
  • ActivityPerson
  • ActivityProcess
  • ActivityTime


  • ActivityMoney
  • ActivityIntangibles
  • ActivityDate



The Process model captures the various components of an activity. Processes may be connected to time, money, intangibles and dates, as well other people, entities and resources. All resources can be linked to Resaerch, Industry, or Product categories.


  • ProcessActivity
  • ProcessEntity
  • ProcessPerson
  • ProcessResources
  • ProcessProducts


  • ProcessServices
  • ProcessTime
  • ProcessMoney
  • ProcessIntangibles
  • ProcessDate



The Time model provides temporal resolution to the Date model, and financial resolution to the Money model!


  • TimeEntity
  • TimePerson
  • TimeActivity
  • TimeProcess


  • TimeMoney
  • TimeIntangibles
  • TimeResources
  • TimeDate



The Money model captures the financial aspects of the other models.


  • MoneyEntity
  • MoneyPerson
  • MoneyActivity
  • MoneyProcess


  • MoneyTime
  • MoneyResources
  • MoneyIntangibles
  • MoneyDate



The Intangibles model captures the "known unknown". Activities and Processes typically involve intangibles - but intangibles can also be connected to other models.


  • IntangiblesActivity
  • IntangiblesProcess
  • IntangiblesTime
  • IntangiblesMoney
  • IntangiblesIntangibles (the "unknown unknown"!)


Date Graph: Roll over the image to explore. Click "Graph Guide" below for step by step details.

Date Graph Key

1 "Justin Kimmey" is the co-author of several Journal articles.

2 "Eq ..." is an article in "Edition 9, Volume 111 of Proceedings of the National Acedemy.." - which is linked to its publication DATE 'September, 2014'. The days of the month are expanded.

3 "Edition 9, Volume 111 of Proceedings of the National Acedemy.." is linked to its publication year - DATE "2014". A volumes of other Journals for 2014 are shown.

4 "2014" is linked to the decade "2010s", which is linked to the "21st Century", which is linked to the "3rd Millennium"

5 The Date model links every day from "January 1st, 1900" to "December 31st, 2100".

6 The Entity "Frontiers Media SA" is linked to its Journal "Frontiers in Neuroscience"


Date Model


The Date hierarchical data set has 7 levels - from Millennium to Days - connecting 73,353 days from January 1, 1900 to December 31, 2100. Time objects linked to days provide temporal resolution down to hours, minutes, seconds amd milliseconds.

The Date Model allows for instantaneous timeline analysis - providing a fourth dimension to Spheres 3D visualizations.


  • DateEntity
  • DatePerson
  • DateActivity
  • DateProcess
  • DateTime
  • DateMoney
  • DateIntangibles

Model Object Hierarchy:

  • Millennium: 2 - 2nd & 3rd
  • Centuries: 3 - 20th, 21st & 22nd
  • Decades: 21 - 1900's to 2100's
  • Years: 201 - 1900 to 2100
  • Months: 2,412 - January, 1900 to December, 2100
  • Days: 73,353 - January 1, 1900 to December 31, 2100